Saturday, August 17, 2019
1. Question : Reporter: A new campaign finance reform bill being considered by Congress would limit the amount of campaign contributions that political candidates can receive. However, a survey of candidates running for mayor, governor, and senate seats shows that not one of them favors the bill. Clearly, there is no desire among politicians to limit campaign contributions. Which one of the following points out the flaw in the reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s argument above? Student Answer: The reporter doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t indicate the amount that the new bill would limit campaign contributions. The evidence provided by the reporter suggests that most politicians are in favor of the new bill. The reporter wrongly assumes that no politician has ever supported a bill intended to limit campaign contributions CORRECT The views of candidates currently running for office do not necessarily represent the views of all politicians. 2. Question : Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of OrlofÃ¢â¬â¢s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest. The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because Student Answer: more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test some students may have been absent from both classes some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students CORRECT more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning 3. Question : All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since DashaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage. Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above? Student Answer: Just because Dasha is a sage doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that she is always wise and inspirational. Just because DashaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration. CORRECT Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage. INCORRECT Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration. 4. Question : The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet. The argument above is flawed because it confuses Student Answer: Jerry with other members of the team the members of one team with the members of another team INCORRECT people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall CORRECT an average for the individuals that make up that average. 5. Question : Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater. The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence Student Answer: CORRECT does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home suggests that CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies 6. Question : A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived. The researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion is suspect because it Student Answer: assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people is based on evidence that is statistically impossible fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has CORRECT relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce 7. Question : Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse. Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above? Student Answer: Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country. Most people who hear the politiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments. A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make societyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems worse. CORRECT Improvements to the environment brought about through the politiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ private planes. 8. Question : Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument? Student Answer: Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue. INCORRECT Many people who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers. Having the time and money to make art doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee an artist commercial success. CORRECT Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer. 9. Question : The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that HathawayÃ¢â¬â¢s research will not result in practical applications. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? Student Answer: CORRECT Professor HathawayÃ¢â¬â¢s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications. Not all professors at Professor HathawayÃ¢â¬â¢s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power. Officials at Professor HathawayÃ¢â¬â¢s university have refused requests to make Professor HathawayÃ¢â¬â¢s research public. INCORRECT Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power. 10. Question : Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t check calorie information before eating. Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above? Student Answer: There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t check calorie information before eating. People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking. INCORRECT Some people who check calorie information before eating donÃ¢â¬â¢t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t check. CORRECT People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating. 11. Question : As part of its reorganization, co mpany X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization. Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above? Student Answer: Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions. Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires. The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company XÃ¢â¬â¢s products. CORRECT Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization. 12. Question : Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair. building : blueprint Student Answer: ship : sea CORRECT cake : recipe bridge : island guitar : song 13. Question : Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair. gavel : judge Student Answer: CORRECT baton : conductor symphony : composer stop sign : driver ruler : math 14. Question : Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair. conductor : orchestr Student Answer: skater : rink teacher : principal producer : movie CORRECT director : cast 15. Question : Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters. Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that donÃ¢â¬â¢t have believable solutions. The speakers above Student Answer: agree that most mystery novels do not have believable solutions agree that a suspenseful mood and colorful characters addÃ to the enjoyment of a mystery novel CORRECT disagree on whether a believable solution is required for the enjoyment of a mystery novel disagree on whether an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoyment in creating a mystery novel influences whether that novel will have a believable solution 16. Question : Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great. Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville. Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether Student Answer: OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivans will fail in its first few months OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville CORRECT the high population of Redville ensures OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s a great chance for success word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville 17. Question : Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week. If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them? Student Answer: The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s circus exhibition. No circus animals were prescribe medications this week. INCORRECT No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health. CORRECT Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week. 18. Question : The higher the price of an antique, the greater peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable. If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price Student Answer: will likely increase peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations that the antique is valuable will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold CORRECT should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable 19. Question : Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression. The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions? Student Answer: It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs. All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression. CORRECT The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects. INCORRECT Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high. 20. Question : Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mallÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans. The argument above would be valid if Student Answer: CORRECT Clark is incapable of disabling the mallÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance system both Evans and Clark are capable of disabling the mallÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance system INCORRECT Evans and Clark are the mallÃ¢â¬â¢s only security guards the mallÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance system is usually used 24 hours a day, seven days a we 21. Question : A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in moreÃ measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network. The argument above assumes that Student Answer: INCORRECT investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company CORRECT the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all 22. Question : The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did. The argument above assumes that Student Answer: the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas CORRECT the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president 23. Question : The very large increase in allergies over the last thirty years is due to the great success of immunizations administered over this time period. Since immunizations have nearly eliminated life-threatening diseases such as polio, the human immune system increasingly targets other environmental substances in order to keep working properly. Allergy symptoms such as runny nose and itchy eyes result when the immune system attacks pollen that is breathed in from the air. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage above? Student Answer: Immunizations often have surprising side effects. Immunizations have been very successful in eliminating life-threatening diseases. INCORRECT Viruses that once caused polio now cause allergies. CORRECT The use of immunizations has led to an increase in allergies. 24. Question : Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And theyÃ¢â¬â¢re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument? Student Answer: Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. INCORRECT Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today. CORRECT While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased. The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed. Points Received: 0 of 1 Comments: 25. Question : Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole. The author of the passage above is primarily interested in Student Answer: providing evidence that the art industry does well during recessions CORRECT presenting reasons for why the art industry does well during recessions discussing the types of artworks that sellÃ best during recessions describing the effect that art has on the economy
As with the accounts by Nichols (1863), when people think of the slavery period in American history, it is normally assumed that the slave owner was white and the slave black. This was true in many cases but the number of free black slave owners was actually higher than most people realize. Black slave owner usually treated family members and friends much better than the other slaves they might own. But even being a family member did not raise the slave above being a commodity. According to Lightner and Ragan (2005), even the black slave owners could not free their slaves so even the ones who purchased family members had to list them as slave purchase. For example, a husband who was born or had managed to become free might buy his wife from the white person who owned her. The husband would thereafter possess his spouse as a slave, not because he wished to keep her in bondage but because the laws of the slave states often made manumission difficult or impossible. Slaves were an investment to their owners and this included the owners who were black themselves. Slavery was inhuman and oppressive but only when it affected a loved one, otherwise, it was a profitable endeavor. According to the 1830 census, roughly 65% of black slave owners bought the slaves for financial reasons with only 8% buying strictly family members and close friends to ensure good treatment and better lives. The 1830 census also named the number of slaves owned by blacks as 10,000 in 4 different states. In 1811, a free black woman named Philis Wells received a $900 loan from Peter Desportes, She got the loan by using her black slave, Mark, as collateral. This was not an uncommon practice. Many black slave owners put up slaves against loans they requested. Mulattos were considered the Ã¢â¬Å"black eliteÃ¢â¬ because of their light complexion and meshed with the whites as much as possible. Treating a slave as anything but a slave would mark you as unworthy to mix with the whites or to enjoy the finer privileges society offered. According to Koger (1985)many other free blacks purchased slaves to use as apprentices for their trade. Moses Brown purchased a young boy for around $300. Moses was a barber by trade and trained the boy to following his footsteps. By the next year, the boy was working as a full barber in Moses shop. Camilla Johnson was a free black pastry cook. She purchased a mulatto name Diana and with DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s light coloring, was able to use her as a server at the parties she catered. Freed blacks quickly found that purchasing slaves to train meant an increase in the profits of the business. As Johnson and Roark (1985) explain Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦while the mulattos could mix more easily with white society without many questions, darker skinned free blacks had a harder timeÃ¢â¬ . Richard Edward DeReef was one of the richest free black men in Charleston, SC. He owned real estate and had achieved a small fortune. Due to his dark complexion, however, he would have been shunned by the Ã¢â¬Å"black eliteÃ¢â¬ except for his claim of Native American Indian blood. If one claimed Native American blood, many times the complexion was accepted as an indication of this lineage. This did not help the slaves to ascend their station but it was a large help to those free blacks who wished to be part of the mainstream society, accumulate wealth and maintain slaves of their own. In South Carolina in 1860, William Ellison was the largest black slave owner in the state. He had been born into slavery and once freed had begun to accumulate his own slaves. By 1960 he owned 63 slaves, not including the ones owned by his son. According to Grooms (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s major source of income came from his being a Ã¢â¬Å"slave breederÃ¢â¬ . Slave breeding was looked upon with disgust and the laws of most southern states forbad the sale of slaves under the age of twelveÃ¢â¬ , but Ellis made a fortune selling slaves of all ages including babies. Grooms (1997) also states that the majority of black slave owners raised sugar cane and lived in Louisiana. There were a few black slave owners who owned sugar cane plantations. C. Richards and her son P. C. Richards were black slave owners who had 152 slaves working the sugar cane plantation they owned. A large majority of black slave owners were female. This was due to the fact that more female slaves were set free than males. History has shown us that a race enslaving its own people has gone on throughout history, but black slave owners are virtually unheard of in the common histories. Questions for Discussion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why would someone who had been a former slave and was well aware of the conditions slaves endured justify owning slaves themselves? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why were the majority of freed slavesÃ¢â¬â¢ women? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why were black slave owners overlooked throughout much of the history of the slave period? References Grooms, R. 1997 DixieÃ¢â¬â¢s Censored Subject: Black Slaveowners, Retrieved January 23, 2007 From the Barnes Review. Website: http://www. americancivilwar. com/authors/black_slaveowner. htm Johnson, M and Roark, J 1985 Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company,Inc. Koger, L. 1985 Black Slaveowners: Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company Lightner, D. L. , & Ragan, A. M. (2005). Were African American Slaveholders Benevolent or Exploitative? A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Southern History Nichols, C. H. (1963). Many Thousand Gone: The Ex-SlavesÃ¢â¬â¢ Account of Their Bondage and Freedom. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Evaluating Sources of Information To evaluate my work I use the tools in the ICE, The Grammar and Writing guide that is there to help me develop my writing and communication skills. Also the Plagiarism paper checker to verify whether my sources are correct and I have not copied someone else idea. There are labs that you can access to help you with your sources if you're struggling on a particular assignment and live services that you can attend via the Weber and teleconference for about an hour.You have to commit yourself to owing the research and then utilize the tools within the library to assist you in determining the relevancy of your sources, by associating the main idea of your source to the main Idea of your paper. The plagiarism checker is a great tool to use In determining the text of your paper has not been copied or structured In a way that reflects another person Idea. To determine whether or not your source Is reliable depends In part on two key factors, the author and h is/her credibility In their field.Credible authors will cite their sources so you can check the accuracy of what they eve written and how they support their viewpoint. Also, are their views of a neutral nature, and in agreement with your subject, and do they coincide with your topic and main idea? Using the internet as a source can be tricky because it is difficult to determine who the author is, anyone can submit or change the content. Keeping to peer reviewed text is the most reliable, because they undergo a strict evaluation process. The library and Its sources has been a useful guide for me in my recent assignments and no doubt in future tasks.The checks and balances that It provides an and will assist you In submitting a quality paper and hopefully giving you an A paper. It Is Important to remember the effort and work you put In to writing a quality paper benefits you In the long run and strengthens your chances for academic success. These are the criteria I use in evaluating m y information. Presentation Week 5 By Jaguar source to the main idea of your paper. The plagiarism checker is a great tool to use in determining the text of your paper has not been copied or structured in a way that reflects another person idea.To determine whether or not your source is reliable depends in part on two key factors, the author and his/her credibility in their field. Process. The library and its sources has been a useful guide for me in my recent assignments and no doubt in future tasks. The checks and balances that it provides can and will assist you in submitting a quality paper and hopefully giving you an A paper. It is important to remember the effort and work you put in to writing a quality paper benefits you in the long run and strengthens your chances for academic
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The Confliction on the Page In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Masque of the Red DeathÃ¢â¬ , by Edgar Allen Poe, the main conflict is the Ã¢â¬Å"Red DeathÃ¢â¬ arrives at Prince Prospero's Masque, and kills everyone. At Prince Prospero's ball the guests in attendance all partied in a castellated abbey which had seven rooms in which the party was held. During the middle of one of the festivities a strange figure came into the room and the bold energy and hype immediately died down to the point of where you could here a pin drop on the floor.At this point the red death has entered the room but nobody knows it yet, Poe writes,Ã¢â¬ The figure was tall and gaunt, and shrouded from head to foot in the habiliments of the grave. Ã¢â¬ (Poe 87) This shows that the people in attendance do not know it is the red death yet, until they see the first sign of the Red Death's presence n the people, which angers the prince. When the prince discovers that it is the red death, he pulls a dagger fro m his belt and follows the corpselike figure through the rooms to the last unlit room, the one that had drapes of black velvet.The prince attempts to stab the ghoulish figure but his plan is foiled: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦having attained the extremity of the velvet apartment, turned suddenly and confronted his pursuer. There was a sharp cry-and the dagger dropped gleaming upon the sable carpet, upon which, instantly afterwards, fell prostrate in death the Price Prospero. Ã¢â¬ (Poe 88) the reader then sees that the prince died due to him being foolish rather than him getting the Red Death disease. The red death then sickened the whole group and everyone dies. This shows how the Red Death was the main conflict in the story due to the fact that it keeps killing everyone.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Wal-Mart is known as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading discount retail chains. Much of its profits and success depends on its stock prices. This paper will examine three different scenarios in relation to the organizations initiative to repurchase its own stock in the market in order to retire it. There are three potential outcomes that the organization can encounter including: 1) the stock price goes down because the balance between debt and equity is distributed thus making interest rates on new debt rise. 2) The stock price is not affected because of the benefit of less shareholders is equal to the negative factor of not having the liquidity. 3) The stock price goes up because there are fewer shares outstanding. To begin with, the paper will examine the history of Wal-Mart to gain a further understanding of where the organization came from and where it is heading in the future. Sam Walton opened the first Wal-Mart in 1962 in Bentonville, Arkansas. It was one of the first of its ki nd- the discount retailer. Walton worked closely with his vendors to keep his prices competitive. Eventually, Walton was able to strike deals due to buying in bulk keeping his prices low. Walton then expanded his retail chain in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s to include warehouse buying by developing SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club. Since its initial opening in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, Wal-Mart and SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club have gone global and expanded the discount chains overseas in areas such as Asia, Mexico, Canada, and South America. In 2008 there were over 590 SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club locations in the US and 100 internationally. In 2006, Wal-Mart had nearly 7000 locations worldwide (Wal-Mart, 2010). ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s Initiative Wal-Mart released their annual report for 2009 and they could not be more proud of the performance that Wal-Mart has done for the fiscal year. The Wal-Mart teams from around the globe have challenged a difficult economy in the retail market, yet Wal-Mart reported net sales of more than $405 billion for the year with the international sales exceeding $100 billion. This is the first time in the company history where the international sales have hit such epic proportions. Wal-Mart is still looking to make things better especially to their stockholders. The initiative that the management is currently concentrating is the retirement of some of the outstanding stock. Previously the board of directors has authorized management to repurchaseÃ Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s stock in the open market but with many restrictions. The latest initiative is driven by the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s authorization to repurchase $15,000,000 worth of stock in order to retire it. There is no time expiration to this authorization and management will be looking for the right conditions to repurchase the stock. Possible Outcome #1 Debt to equity gives the proportion of the amount of assets that is financed by debt versus shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity. A debt to equity measures the leverage of a company. Currently, Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s debt to equity ratio is 0.52 or 52%. Basically, meaning that 52% of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s operations are financed through debt and as a result must pay interest on this financing that it is receiving. If the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s assets can generate a greater return that it would without the debt being incurred, the debt cost would make no sense. On the other hand if interest is low enough and at the right proportion debt can actually lower the total cost of capital. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to repurchase the stock is likely to affect the balance between the amount of equity and the amount of debt on Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s statements. If one examines the annual report of Wal-Mart, it is noticeable that the amount of new debt is very close to the amount spent on repurchasing stock. It is apparent from this that Wal-Mart is shifting its debt ratio. Because Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s cost of debt has been quite low, it is possible that additional debt may actually increase the cost of future debt. If investors perceive that this is the most likely outcome, then the outcome of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to repurchase stock will actually reduce the price of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s stock. Therefore, first possible outcome is that Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s stock will decline in price if management repurchases stock on the open market. Possible Outcome #2 Another possible outcome for Wal-Mart is that the stock price may go up due to this program. According to the initiative, on February of 2009 Wal-Mart reactivated the repurchase of their shares. At that time, there was five billion dollars left in the initiative to repurchase stock. If the conditions are right, according to the book value the stock price should go up after the repurchase. After the repurchase of the stock, there will beÃ less common shares outstanding and therefore the total assets minus the total liabilities divided by now a lower number of shares will result in a higher price per share. Investors value the stock based on the size of future cash flows from the company. Another indicator that the stock will go up is the size of the income per share. According to Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s statements, in 2005 the net income per share was $2.41, in 2006 that number went up to $2.68, in 2007 it went up again to $2.71, in 2008 it went up to $3.13 and in 2009 to $3.39 (Wal-Mart, 2009). Another interesting fact that may contribute to a rise in price of the stock as a result of a repurchase is to look at the gain for the remaining stockholders from a different view (that may be a little unorthodox). In 2005, before the repurchasing the net income was $10,267 and in 2009 after the repurchasing it was $13,400, which is an increase of 30.5%. One may say that the stock price went up because of this factor alone. Nevertheless, if one also looks by how much Ã¢â¬Å"Net Income Per share of common stockÃ¢â¬ went up he will find that in 2005 it was $2.41 and in 2009 it was $3.39, which is an increase of 40.66%. It is interesting to see that an increase of 30.5% in net income resulted in an increase of 40.66% in the income per share over the same time period. This amplified effect must be the result of the repurchase program, which would likely cause price rise in the stock when additional repurchase happens. Possible Outcome #3 Both outcome #1 and outcome #2 have valid points. It is true that investors value future cash flows. The theory in outcome #2 was built on the fact that investors would value the stock more because more net income would be per share. On the other hand, outcome #1 based its theory on the fact that if the debt ratio is disturbed interest cost will rise and future cash flows can decline, which would cause investors to value the stock less. Possible outcome #3 is that both outcome #1 and #2 will happen offsetting each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s affect. If both would offset each other the price of the stock would not be affected by the initiative. Some investors would value the fact that there are less outstanding shares and would begin entering a long position. On the other hand, other investors would worry that outcome number #1 will occur and would take the short position. It is possible that the price would remain relatively the same because of this. The Most Likely Outcome Currently, Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s debt ratio is reasonable and most analysts have a strong buy or a buy recommendations for Wal-Mart. Considering the vast size of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet the size of the initiative (15,000,000) will not affect the debt ratio significantly. Because the debt ratio will not be affected significantly outcome number one cannot have a very strong affect. On the other hand, when Wal-Mart repurchases its stock it not only changes the balance between debt and equity but it also sends out a message. Psychologically, repurchasing its stock, Wal-Mart is sending out a message that management believes in Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s future success and thus believes that should there be a need Wal-Mart can reissue share at a higher price than at which they where repurchased. Combining the affect of the increased future cash flows for shareholder and the psychological affect it is most likely that outcome #2 will occur; it is likely that the price of stock will rise due to m anagementÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to repurchase Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s stock. Conclusion As one can see from this example, any initiative that management takes can have important outcomes. It is also often possible for the outcomes to be very different from what management intended. It is important that management considers each outcome and the probability that it will occur. In this case, management has repurchased stock in the past and can therefore look at what happened then and use that as historic data to try and draw conclusions about what will happen after this repurchase. References Wal-Mart. (2010). Walmartstores.com: History Timeline. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/7603.aspx Wal-Mart (2009) Annual Report. Retrieved on July 29, 2010 from http://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDFArchive/wmt2009.pdf
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Book Report - Assignment Example Marginalized Americans retaliated via employing severe and unequaled efforts to regain their dignity, which encompassed studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ movements comprising of daring youths like Young Americans for Freedom (Young Americans for Freedom) besides others (Foner 1046). The period between 1960s until mid 1970s, marked the most decisive era in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history that yielded to the start of marginalized recognition, which the current natives are enjoying. This was an explosion of what the then parents were experiencing due to Ã¢â¬Å"wantÃ¢â¬ (deprivation), which prompted them bow to the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s orders for survival, though, teaching their children to defy. Hence, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s advice, though accompanied by a contradicting parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ action, Ã¢â¬Å"My Dad taught me never to bow my head to nobody.Ã¢â¬ But sometimes DaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s head was bowed: frequently Daddy was destroyed (p. 268). Marginalization, inequality and continuous call for whiteÃ¢â¬â¢s rule de fiance by the parents besides other rights activists pioneers, prompted the students to demand their recognition tirelessly. Consequently, surprising Americans who kept wandering what has Ã¢â¬Å"got intoÃ¢â¬ the students. ... For illustration, hotels and even public transport buses where the whites used to assume the front seats. Besides, the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s realization regarding the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s mandate to intervene and improve its nativesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, it fueled numerous uprisings, owing to the contrary to its dealings. They contended, that when the government interferes with the work of the market economy, tends to reduce the moral and physical strength of the nation; that when it takes from one man to bestow on another, it diminishes the incentive of the first, the integrity of the second and moral autonomy of both (p. 271). Unfair treatment and favoritism based on racialism prompted the marginalized to declare and believe that, liberty can exist only when free citizens can concertedly defend their rights against all enemies (p. 271). Civil rightsÃ¢â¬â¢ activists like Malcolm x and other like minded who deemed that it is impossible for the oppressor to grant equality to the oppressed, also fueled severe uprisings to demand what was due to the segregated people. Consequently, continuing to the late 1970s where the American regime not wanting to tarnish their global reputation yielded to the diverse uprisingsÃ¢â¬â¢ demands regarding equality. For instance, the initial sign was BirminghamÃ¢â¬â¢s events in May 1963 that overwhelmingly forced Kennedy to ban discrimination in public where its related Act attained legality during the Lyndon JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s regime. Since, America by having internal wrangles entailing inequality among its natives could not declare itself the champion of freedom. Feminist movement (Redstockings) that emerged during 1969, though, short-lived had an immense influence that is evident presently. Redstockings identified male
Monday, August 12, 2019
Briefing assignment - Essay Example Spokane moves to the trial court to contest SkylineÃ¢â¬â¢s argument on monetary damages. The trial court accepts SpokaneÃ¢â¬â¢s application and rules in their favor .Trial court then rules that there existed no agreement despite skyline being earlier on issued winning the contract through competitive bidding. Skyline is not appeased by the trial court judgment summary and moves to the court of appeal on grounds that they won the bid and the written awarded contract was a proof of an agreement. An award can be a prove of a contract depending on terms of bidding by any party. while arguing on company experience and employee experience one need o acknowledge the fact that competitive bidding is meant to create a level playing ground and that a public institution bases public interest first hence company experience runs supreme. Monetary damages and injunctive relief apply only between two private contracts and that public entity work based on public interest rather than personal benefits. Court of appeal division three agreed with the appellant on the fact that an award proved an existence of an agreement between the two parties. The court however ruled that the appellant was not entitled to monetary damages compensation because the contract agreement differed from other private agreement. The correspondent in this case was a public entity and worked based on set public policies. In that, any decision was based on public interest rather than personal befits and that awarding monetary compensation would be on the interest of the appellant rather than the public interest. The court acknowledged the fact that an award may be challenged in a court of law hence rejects Skylines argument on their position being different from rejected bidders. Glenn agrees to become a network provider at Health Link after signing HMO and PPO agreements. This agreement provided ground for renewal and termination of the contracts. Complaints